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City of Springfield

  •   State: 
    Sangamon County
      County FIPS: 
    39°47′54″N 89°40′33″W
      Area total: 
    67.49 sq mi (174.79 km²)
      Area land: 
    61.16 sq mi (158.41 km²)
      Area water: 
    6.33 sq mi (16.38 km²)
    600 ft (183 m)
    Incorporated Town April 2, 1832 ( 1832-04-02 ) City Charter February 3, 1840 ( 1840-02-03 )
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Springfield, IL
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    1,870.37 residents per square mile of area (722.16/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat and largest city of Sangamon County. The city's population was 114,394 at the 2020 census, which makes it the state's seventh most-populous city. Springfield was settled by European-Americans in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state. The most famous historic resident was Abraham Lincoln, who lived in Springfield from 1837 until 1861, when he went to the White House as President of the United States. Major tourist attractions include multiple sites connected with Lincoln including the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, Lincoln Home National Historic Site, Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices State Historic Site and the Lincoln Tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery. Springfield's economy is dominated by government jobs, plus the related lobbyists and firms that deal with the state and county governments and justice system, and health care and medicine. Lying in Downstate Illinois, a part of Tornado Alley, tornadoes have hit the region on a few occasions. Lake Springfield, a large artificial lake owned by the City Water, Light & Power company (CWLP), supplies the city with recreation and drinking water. Weather is fairly typical for middle latitude locations, with four distinct seasons including hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most Midwestern cities; thunderstorms may occur in late spring. The first cabin was built in 1820, by John Kelly, after discovering the area to be plentiful of deer and wild game. The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1838. The Native Americans were forced west to Indian Territory by the government's Indian Removal policy.


Springfield is the primary city name, but also Andrew, Archer, Bissell, Bradfordton, Clear Lake, Riddle Hill are acceptable city names or spellings, Devereux Heights on the other hand no longer accepted or obsolete and are no longer used as a designation. The official name is City of Springfield. Settlers originally named this community as "Calhoun, after Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, expressing their cultural ties. The land that Springfield now occupies was visited first by trappers and fur traders who came to the Sangamon River in 1818. Abraham Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area in 1831 when he was a young man, but he did not live in the city until 1837. In 1837 Lincoln moved to Springfield, where he lived and worked for the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield. His farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were largely native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, and devoted to partisan organization. By the 1840s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians. Waves of new European immigrants had changed the city's demographics and they became aligned with the Democrats, who made more effort to assist and connect with them. Widespread migration in the 19th-century U.S. produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Migration was more selective by occupation, wealth, birthplace, and age. Longer-term residents tended to be wealthier, more skilled, and socially and economically advantaged. Persisters represented a small, socially, homogeneous, politically active and politically active community. Members of a tightly knit and exclusive "core community" who controlled local political affairs.


The city is located in the Lower Illinois River Basin, in a large area known as Till Plain. The term "full pool" describes the lake at 560 feet (170.7 m) above sea level and indicates the level at which the lake begins to flow over the dam's spillway, if no gates are opened. Springfield is located on the farthest reaches of Tornado Alley, and as such, thunderstorms are a common occurrence throughout the spring and summer. On March 12, 2006, two tornadoes hit Springfield, killing two people. The city received a federal grant in February 2005 to help improve its tornado warning systems and new sirens were put in place in November of that year. On June 14, 1957, a tornado hit Springfield. The cost of testing the sirens failed during an April 2006 test shortly after the city was struck by two F2 tornadoes; no one died as a result of the storm system. The tornado that hit the city on that day cost the city $1.2 million to repair and replace its sirens. Springfield has a total area of 65.764 square miles, of which 59.48 square miles (154.05 km²) (or 90.44%) is land and 6.284 sq miles (16.28 km²), (or 9.56%) is water. The average yearly temperature in Springfield is 52.4 °F (11.3 °C), with a summer maximum of 76.5 °C (24.7 °C) in July and a winter minimum of 24.2 °F in January. Hot, humid summers and cold, rather snowy winters are the norm.


As of the census of 2000, there were 111,454 people, 48,621 households, and 27,957 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 81.0% White, 15.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0,1% Pacific Islander, and 2.6% of two or more races. Non-Hispanic Whites were 74.7% of the population in 2010, down from 87. 6% in 1980. The median income for a household in theCity was $39,388. Families with children had a higher income of about $69,437. The per capita income was $23,324. About 8.4% of families and 11.7%. of the residents were below the poverty line, including 17.3%. of those under age 18 and 7.7. of those age 65 or over. The city is located on the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi River. Springfield is located in the heart of the Red River Valley, which runs through the city's downtown area. The Red River is a tributary of the Little Red River. The river is one of the few rivers in the state that runs through Springfield. It is also the only river that flows through the center of Springfield. The town's name comes from the town of Springfield, which was once known as "Springfield, Missouri" and was the site of the town's first post office.


As of February 2007, government jobs account for about 30,000 of the city's non-agricultural jobs. Trade, transportation and utilities, and the health care industries each provide between 17,000 and 18,000 jobs to the city. The largest private sector employer in 2002 was Memorial Health System with 3,400 people working for the organization. According to estimates from the "Living Wage Calculator" the living wage for the city of Springfield is $7.89 per hour for one adult, approximately $15,780 working 2,000 hours per year. For a family of four, costs are increased and the living Wage is $17.78 per hour within the city, according to the BLS. The Civilian Labor force dropped from 116,500 in September 2006 to 113,400 in February 2007. In addition, the unemployment rate rose during the same time period from 3.8% to 5.1%. The largest employers in the city are: Memorial Health system, Illinois State University, and Springfield University. The city's 2021 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report says the largest employers will be the University of Illinois at Springfield and Springfield State College. The state of Illinois is both the city and county's largest employer, employing 17,00 people across Sangamon County. It is also the largest employer in the state of Missouri. The State of Illinois has the highest unemployment rate in the United States, at 6.7%. The state has the lowest unemployment rate of any U.S. state.

Arts and culture

Springfield has been home to a wide array of individuals, who, in one way or another, contributed to the broader American culture. Vachel Lindsay, most famous for his poem "The Congo" and a booklet called "Rhymes to be Traded for Bread", was born in Springfield in 1879. A Madeiran Portuguese community resided in the vicinity of the Carpenter Street Underpass, one of the earliest and largest Portuguese settlements in the Midwest. The Hoogland Center for the Arts in downtown Springfield is a centerpiece for performing arts, and houses among other organizations the Springfield Theatre Centre, the Springfield Ballet Company, the Illinois Symphony Orchestra and the Springfield Municipal Opera. The corn dog is claimed to have been invented in the city under the name "Cozy Dog", although there is some debate to the origin of the snack. The horseshoe sandwich, not well known outside of central Illinois, also originated in Springfield. Springfield was once the site of the Reisch Beer brewery, which operated for 117 years under the same family from 1849 to 1966. The Maid-Rite Sandwich Shop in Springfield still operates as the first U.S. drive-thru window. The city is also known for its chili, or "chilli", as it is said to have begun with the founder of the Dew Chilli Parlor in 1909, due to a spelling error in its sign. The Illinois State Library's Gwendolyn Brooks Building features the names of 35 Illinois authors etched on its exterior fourth floor frieze.


Springfield, Illinois is home to a number of minor league baseball franchises. The city is also a host to several Semi Pro Football Teams. Springfield native Ryan Held won a gold medal as a member of the USA 400-meter (4 X 100 meter) freestyle relay team at the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Current and former Major League Baseball players Kevin Seitzer, Jeff Fassero, Ryan O'Malley, Jason and Justin Knoedler, and Hall of Famer Robin Roberts were all born in Springfield. Springfield's largest baseball field, Robin Roberts Stadium at Lanphier Park, takes its full name in honor of Roberts and his athletic achievements. The Springfield Park District operates more than 30 parks throughout the city, including two privately operated treearboretums and the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Garden. In addition to the public parks, two significant privately operated hillside parks operate within the city's limits: the Adams Wildlife Sanctuary on Springfield's east side, and the Lincoln Memorial Memorial Garden on the south side of the city. In 2008, the Springfield Sliders, a college-prep baseball team, moved to the city to play in the local minor league league, the Illinois Intercollegiate Baseball Association. In 2007, the city was the home of the Springfield Stallions, an indoor football team who played at the Prairie Capital Convention Center in 2007. Today the city is host to the Springfield Jr. Blues, a North American Hockey League team that plays at the Nelson Recreation Center.


Springfield city government is structured under the mayor-council form of government. The executive branch also consists of 17 non-elected city "offices" Ranging from the police department to the Office of Public Works, each office can be altered through city ordinance. Illinois government has an executive branch, occupied by the state governor, a legislative branch, which consists of the state senate and house, and a judicial branch, topped by the Illinois Supreme Court. Many state bureaucrats work in offices in Springfield, and it is the regular meeting place of the Illinois General Assembly. All persons elected on a statewide basis are required to have at least one residence in Springfield and the state government funds these residents. As of 2020 none of the major constitutional officers in Illinois designated Springfield as their primary residence. Most cabinet officers and all majorconstitutional officers instead primarily do their business in Chicago. In 2012 St. Louis Post-Dispatch columnist Pat Gauen argued that "in the reality of Illinois politics, [Springfield] shares de facto capital status with Chicago." Many elected officials such as the Governor, as well as the Attorney General, Speaker of the House, the minority leader of the Senate, the Comptroller, and the Treasurer, all live in the Chicago area. At one point in 2011, Governor Pat Quinn only spent 68 days and 40 nights in Springfield as per his official schedule. "It's almost like Chicago is becoming the shadow capital of Illinois" and that "Springfield is almost become a hinterland outpost".


Springfield is home to the University of Illinois Springfield, formerly Sangamon State University. The city is also home to a junior college Lincoln Land Community College, located just south of UIS. From 1875 to 1976, Springfield was home to Concordia Theological Seminary. The seminary was moved back to its original home of Fort Wayne, Indiana, and the campus now serves as the Illinois Department of Corrections Academy. The Springfield public school district is District No. 186, which operates 24 elementary schools and an early learning center, (pre-K) District 186 operates three high schools, Lanphier High School, Springfield High School and Springfield Southeast High School. It also operates five middle schools and five elementary schools. It is the home of the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, which includes a Cancer Institute in Springfield's Medical District. The school is located on the southeast side of the city. It was founded in 1857, first as an all-girls school, and converted to co-ed in 1981. The university was moved to its current home of Springfield in 1976. The campus was closed in 2007, and is now home to Southern Illinois College of Medicine. The hospital is located in the Springfield Medical District, near the city's downtown area. It has a cancer center, which was opened in 2009. The cancer center is the first of its kind in the state of Illinois. It opened its doors in 2010. It will be the first cancer center in the Midwest to open in the U.S. since 2008.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois = 72.9. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 27. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 71. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Springfield = 3.9 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 114,394 individuals with a median age of 38.1 age the population dropped by -3.58% in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 1,870.37 residents per square mile of area (722.16/km²). There are average 2.22 people per household in the 3,053 households with an average household income of $37,398 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 8.50% of the available work force and has dropped -3.20% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 25.40%. The number of physicians in Springfield per 100,000 population = 350.1.


The annual rainfall in Springfield = 34.8 inches and the annual snowfall = 22.4 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 112. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 198. 87 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 17.5 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 39, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois which are owned by the occupant = 65.26%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 46 years with median home cost = $60,290 and home appreciation of 1.76%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $18.16 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $3,612 per student. There are 16.4 students for each teacher in the school, 1144 students for each Librarian and 2170 students for each Counselor. 4.26% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 7.55% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 3.01% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Springfield's population in Sangamon County, Illinois of 34,159 residents in 1900 has increased 3,35-fold to 114,394 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 51.06% female residents and 48.94% male residents live in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois.

    As of 2020 in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois are married and the remaining 47.74% are single population.

  • 20.8 minutes is the average time that residents in Springfield require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    79.94% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 12.24% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 2.10% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.33% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois, 65.26% are owner-occupied homes, another 25.74% are rented apartments, and the remaining 9.00% are vacant.

  • The 55.34% of the population in Springfield, Sangamon County, Illinois who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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